GEO 1012 -- New Course

Mon Mar 8 12:18:55 2010

Approvals Received:
Department
on 03-08-10
by Kathy Ohler
(k-ohler@umn.edu)
Approvals Pending: College/Dean  > LE > Catalog
Effective Status: Active
Effective Term: 1113 - Spring 2011
Course: GEO 1012
Institution:
Campus:
UMNTC - Twin Cities
UMNTC - Twin Cities
Career: UGRD
College: TIOT - Institute of Technology
Department: 11130 - Geology & Geophysics
General
Course Title Short: Natural Hazards and Disasters
Course Title Long: Natural Hazards and Disasters
Max-Min Credits
for Course:
3.0 to 3.0 credit(s)
Catalog
Description:
Geological processes that give rise to natural hazards and the emerging technologies that allow societies to mitigate their effects.
Print in Catalog?: Yes
CCE Catalog
Description:
<no text provided>
Grading Basis: Stdnt Opt
Topics Course: No
Honors Course: No
Delivery Mode(s): Classroom
Instructor
Contact Hours:
3.0 hours per week
Years most
frequently offered:
Every academic year
Term(s) most
frequently offered:
Spring
Component 1: LEC (with final exam)
Auto-Enroll
Course:
No
Graded
Component:
LEC
Academic
Progress Units:
Not allowed to bypass limits.
3.0 credit(s)
Financial Aid
Progress Units:
Not allowed to bypass limits.
3.0 credit(s)
Repetition of
Course:
Repetition not allowed.
Course
Prerequisites
for Catalog:
<no text provided>
Course
Equivalency:
No course equivalencies
Consent
Requirement:
No required consent
Enforced
Prerequisites:
(course-based or
non-course-based)
No prerequisites
Editor Comments: <no text provided>
Proposal Changes: New course for Spring 2011.
History Information: Replaces Geo 3003 Geohazards
Faculty
Sponsor Name:
Josh Feinberg/Bruce Moskowitz
Faculty
Sponsor E-mail Address:
feinberg@umn.edu / bmosk@umn.edu
Student Learning Outcomes
Student Learning Outcomes: * Student in the course:

- Can identify, define, and solve problems

Please explain briefly how this outcome will be addressed in the course. Give brief examples of class work related to the outcome.

By providing the geologic background for a particular natural hazard, students will be able to identify the nature of the hazard and determine the best approach to minimizing its effects on society.

How will you assess the students' learning related to this outcome? Give brief examples of how class work related to the outcome will be evaluated.

Students are required to keep a ┐Natural Hazards and Disasters Journal┐ of five significant natural hazard events that happened over the semester and have made the media headlines. Each entry must contain a paragraph summary of the event, including a description of the affects the event had on humans and society, and a short discussion, displaying critical thinking, of the importance, implications or consequences of the event and actions that could have been taken to mitigate the damages.

- Can locate and critically evaluate information

Please explain briefly how this outcome will be addressed in the course. Give brief examples of class work related to the outcome.

The Natural Hazards and Disaster Journal necessitates that students can locate and evaluate technical information from online agency sites such as the U.S. Geological Survey and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

How will you assess the students' learning related to this outcome? Give brief examples of how class work related to the outcome will be evaluated.

The problem sets that are a part of this class ask students quantify and to critically evaluate geologic processes and hazard technologies that are discuss in lecture. For example, they will be asked to locate epicenters of earthquakes, compile flood frequency diagrams, and plot the spread of tsunamis.

- Can communicate effectively

Please explain briefly how this outcome will be addressed in the course. Give brief examples of class work related to the outcome.

Students will be encouraged to participate in open-ended class discussions of how to best manage natural hazards. Further, the instructions on the exams tell students that their grades are affected, in part, by how well they articulate their point of view, rather than whether they get some pre-ordained ┐right answer┐.

How will you assess the students' learning related to this outcome? Give brief examples of how class work related to the outcome will be evaluated.

The Natural Hazards and Disaster Journal requires students to express their ideas for hazard mitigation in a clear, logical manner. The importance of clear writing is emphasized in our grading rubric for this portion of the course.

- Understand the role of creativity, innovation, discovery, and expression across disciplines

Please explain briefly how this outcome will be addressed in the course. Give brief examples of class work related to the outcome.

There are all sorts of creative ways to prepare and react to natural hazards. Some of the most effective approaches incorporate creative uses of the Internet to transmit real-time information to public officials. The various case studies discussed during this course will give students a feel for the many different ways in which people can use technology minimize the damage incurred by natural disasters. These case studies, as well as the readings, also highlight the many different paths to discovery.

How will you assess the students' learning related to this outcome? Give brief examples of how class work related to the outcome will be evaluated.

There are four open class discussions that use case studies of past natural disasters to get students to independently identify ways in technologies could have been used to minimize the damage caused by these events. This style of discussion promotes creative, innovative thinking and is a valued aspect of our course.

- Have acquired skills for effective citizenship and life-long learning

Please explain briefly how this outcome will be addressed in the course. Give brief examples of class work related to the outcome.

An important feature of this course is imbedding the study of the ethical and social context in which hazard-mitigation technologies are implemented in different communities. Students will come to understand that many issues that may appear to be simply technical or economic have important social and ethical dimensions that public policy must take into account. These include competing rights of urban and rural communities, the uneven distribution of resources for hazard mitigation, and the importance of innovation to public safety.

How will you assess the students' learning related to this outcome? Give brief examples of how class work related to the outcome will be evaluated.

Part of our homework problem sets ask students to propose technological and public policy solutions to natural hazard mitigation in specific instances (e.g., Red River flood control measures, Building code requirements in southern California, etc.). This requires students to, in essence, propose their own legislation, and at the very minimum it will give them an appreciation for the kinds of public policy initiatives that they will see as voters later in life.

Liberal Education
Requirement
this course fulfills:
TS - TS Technology and Society
Other requirement
this course fulfills:
None
Criteria for
Core Courses:
Describe how the course meets the specific bullet points for the proposed core requirement. Give concrete and detailed examples for the course syllabus, detailed outline, laboratory material, student projects, or other instructional materials or method.

Core courses must meet the following requirements:

  • They explicitly help students understand what liberal education is, how the content and the substance of this course enhance a liberal education, and what this means for them as students and as citizens.
  • They employ teaching and learning strategies that engage students with doing the work of the field, not just reading about it.
  • They include small group experiences (such as discussion sections or labs) and use writing as appropriate to the discipline to help students learn and reflect on their learning.
  • They do not (except in rare and clearly justified cases) have prerequisites beyond the University's entrance requirements.
  • They are offered on a regular schedule.
  • They are taught by regular faculty or under exceptional circumstances by instructors on continuing appointments. Departments proposing instructors other than regular faculty must provide documentation of how such instructors will be trained and supervised to ensure consistency and continuity in courses.

<no text provided>
Criteria for
Theme Courses:
Describe how the course meets the specific bullet points for the proposed theme requirement. Give concrete and detailed examples for the course syllabus, detailed outline, laboratory material, student projects, or other instructional materials or methods.

Theme courses have the common goal of cultivating in students a number of habits of mind:
  • thinking ethically about important challenges facing our society and world;
  • reflecting on the shared sense of responsibility required to build and maintain community;
  • connecting knowledge and practice;
  • fostering a stronger sense of our roles as historical agents.


Geo 1012 (Natural Hazards and Disasters) fits well with the goals of the theme courses for a liberal education, contributing significantly to all four of the common goals for these courses.  Specifically, the course engages students to,
1.        Think ethically about important challenges facing our society and world:

As human populations continue to grow, our communities are expanding into previously unsettled areas and our cities are becoming more densely populated.  This population expansion has increased the potential for damage associated with natural disasters such as earthquakes, volcanoes, and tsunamis.  As citizens, we need to understand these natural processes in order make informed, ethical choices that balance our desire for growth with our social justice values.   In short, we want this course to help foster intelligent growth.  In addition to educating students about natural geologic processes, this course will expose students to new technologies that are allowing scientists, policy makers, and the public to monitor natural hazards and prevent potential natural disasters.

2.        Reflect on the shared sense of responsibility required to build and maintain community:

Students readily understand that earthquakes and floods can result in catastrophic loss of life and property.  Students also understand that new technologies can transmit news and observations instantaneously across the world.  These two points of knowledge provide a solid basis for getting them to consider how a community can anticipate and react safely to future natural disasters; and geology provides the intellectual framework for understanding how and why these natural hazards arise.  Students in this course will learn that hazard prediction also embodies a shared sense of responsibility between the public and the scientists who make the predictions.

3.        Connect knowledge and practice:
This course is all about how communities apply fundamental knowledge of geological processes to mitigate the risks associated with natural hazards. For example, by understanding a region┐s style of volcanism, communities can better prepare for specific hazards ranging from volcanic landslides to ash fall.  Each of these hazards can be dealt with using an array of different technological approaches. We will encourage students to recognize the potential risk associated with different geologic environments and to propose potential solutions to minimize those risks.
4.        Foster a stronger sense of our roles as historical agents:

The recent natural disasters in Haiti and in Sumatra underscore the importance of understanding the interface between geologic processes and human society.  Comparative case studies of natural disasters in the United States will allow students to see how public policy decisions can have a real effect on minimizing the damage associated with natural disasters.  For example, by comparing the extensive damage incurred after the 1906 San Francisco earthquake with the more limited damage experienced after the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake in the same area, we can emphasize how specific community actions led to a better-prepared populace.  We can also use these case studies to point out areas that still need improvement.  A key theme in this class will be the identification of community-wide preventative ACTIONS that citizens can bring about to reduce the damage associated with natural hazards.

The course also satisfies the specific requirements for the Technology and Society theme by meeting each of the criteria for such courses as follows:
1.        The course examines one or more technologies that have had some measureable impact on contemporary society.

This is a central theme throughout the course.  Several kinds of technologies have allowed contemporary society to better anticipate and manage natural disasters ranging from earthquake and tsunami early warning systems, which rely on satellite constellations and the internet, to more mechanistic technologies, such as shear walls and braced frames, which improve people┐s (and building┐s) chances of surviving major earthquakes.  We will also discuss technologies that have had unanticipated societal consequences, such as levee systems for flood control.  Although technology will never be able to completely protect society from the dangers of natural hazards, we aim to show that communities can harness a broad range of technologies to minimize the damage associated with natural hazards.  

2.        The course builds student understanding of the science and engineering behind the technology addressed.

This is integrated into almost every lecture (see lecture outline).  The course is divided into several segments that each focus on particular kinds of natural hazards (e.g., earthquakes, volcanoes, floods).  After describing the hazards and the geological principles that give rise to them, we will describe in detail the technologies that different societies have used to contend with these hazards.  Thus, students will learn exactly how the U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) uses an array of seafloor pressure sensors to detect tsunamis and provide advanced warning to communities around the Pacific and Atlantic rims (week  9).   Students will be exposed to the engineering behind efforts to seismically retrofit buildings in areas prone to earthquakes (week  4).  These sorts of examples demonstrate how advanced technologies can aid communities trying to live in the shadow of natural hazards.
3.        Students discuss the role that society has played in fostering the development of technology as well as the response to the adoption and use of technology.

This element is addressed in a number of ways.  Certain natural disasters emphasize the shortcomings in society┐s infrastructural readiness and ability to react quickly to geologic events such as earthquakes and volcanic eruptions (weeks 4 & 8).  For example, the fires that decimated San Francisco after the 1906 earthquake were exacerbated by broken water mains and ruptured gas lines.  As a result of this extensive fire damage, there was a clear societal need for improved engineering of the city┐s water supply.  Ultimately, this need led to the development of flexible joint water mains.  Examples, like these emphasize how many hazard-related technologies are created after severe events that have underscored their need.

Other examples highlight how society has responded to the adoption of new technologies.  For example, after the recent Chilean earthquake, we saw the orderly evacuation of coastal areas by Hawaiians who had been alerted to the possibility of tsunamis via the tsunami warning system.  Although Hawaii was spared from any major tsunamis, this is an example of how societies can successfully adopt and adapt to new technologies for hazard mitigation.

4.        Students consider the impact of technology from multiple perspectives that include developers, users/consumers, as well as others in society affected by the technology.

A key idea communicated in this course is that the development of hazard-related technologies is strongly decentralized.  Some technologies, such as avalanche control measures, are the result of local communities striving to better protect their citizens (week 10).  Other more integrated technologies, such as Earthquake early warning systems, are the result of government funded research efforts and rely on large networks of seismometers that communicate via the Internet (week 3).  Students come to understand that a key dynamic of this process is the interplay between public officials, city planners, and scientists and engineers.  The significance of considering these technologies from multiple perspectives is especially central to the discussion in week 9 (on the implementation of tsunami warning systems after the 2004 Sumatra event) and week 12 (on positive and negative effects of levee systems for flood control).   

5.        Students develop skills in evaluating conflicting views on existing or emerging technology.

This topic will be addressed during class discussions at multiple points throughout the course.  For example, there are several different approaches for contending with potential flood events (week 11-13).  Historically, the Army Corps of Engineers has been a strong proponent for the construction of extensive levee systems.  While levees have been shown to dramatically reduce the flood potential in immediately adjacent communities, they have also been shown to increase the flooding potential for downstream communities.  Alternative technologies are available for controlling runoff, such as permeable pavements, rain gardens, and holding basins.  After asking students which technologies they would like to see used in their communities, they are then encouraged to defend their opinions openly in class.

6.        Students engage in a process of critical evaluation that provides a framework with which to evaluate new technology in the future.

The aim here is not simply to better understand geologic hazards or be able to assess how hazards are minimized; it is also to give students a foundation for critically evaluating future approaches to managing hazards, from a technical, personal, and societal point of view.  The course finishes with a case study of proposed flood control measures for flood-prone communities along the Red River such as Grand Forks and Fargo.  Determining which communities receive federal and state funding to construct flood control measures is an ongoing contentious issue.  Students will be asked to express the pros and cons of each proposal and to argue on behalf of their favored projects.   This final case study requires students to do their own imagining about the future, and to be able to make a sound technological and economic argument for why what they propose makes sense as a community investment and to justify its social value as well.


Finally, this course also enhances student ability with respect to the following student learning outcomes:

1.        Can identify, define and solve problems.

Justification:  By providing the geologic background for a particular natural hazard, students will be able to identify the nature of the hazard and determine the best approach to minimizing its effects on society.

2.        Can locate and critically evaluate information.

Justification:  Students are required to keep a hazard  and  disaster log of five significant natural hazard events that happened over the semester   This will necessitate them locating and evaluating technical information from online agency sites such as the U.S. Geological Survey and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration.

3.        Can communicate effectively.

Justification: Students will be encouraged to participate in open-ended class discussions of how to best manage natural hazards.  Further, the instructions on the exams tell students that their grades are affected, in part, by how well they articulate their point of view, rather than whether they get some pre-ordained ┐right answer┐.

4.        Understand the role of creativity, innovation, discovery and expression across disciplines.

Justification: There are all sorts of creative ways to prepare and react to natural hazards.  Some of the most effective approaches incorporate creative uses of the Internet to transmit real-time information to public officials.  The various case studies discussed during this course will give students a feel for the many different ways in which people can use technology minimize the damage incurred by natural disasters.  These case studies, as well as the readings, also highlight the many different paths to discovery.

5.        Have acquired skills for effective citizenship and lifelong learning.
An important feature of this course is imbedding the study of the ethical and social context in which hazard-mitigation technologies are implemented in different communities.  Students will come to understand that many issues that may appear to be simply technical or economic have important social and ethical dimensions that public policy must take into account.  These include competing rights of urban and rural communities, the uneven distribution of resources for hazard mitigation, and the importance of innovation to public safety.
Writing Intensive
Propose this course
as Writing Intensive
curriculum:
No
Question 1: What types of writing (e.g., reading essay, formal lab reports, journaling) are likely to be assigned? Include the page total for each writing assignment. Indicate which assignment(s) students will be required to revise and resubmit after feedback by the instructor or the graduate TA.

<no text provided>
Question 2: How does assigning a significant amount of writing serve the purpose of this course?

<no text provided>
Question 3: What types of instruction will students receive on the writing aspect of the assignments?

<no text provided>
Question 4: How will the students' grades depend on their writing performance? What percentage of the overall grade will be dependent on the quality and level of the students' writing compared with the course content?

<no text provided>
Question 5: If graduate students or peer tutors will be assisting in this course, what role will they play in regard to teaching writing?

<no text provided>
Question 6: How will the assistants be trained and supervised?

<no text provided>
Question 7: Write up a sample assignment handout here for a paper that students will revise and resubmit after receiving feedback on the initial draft.

<no text provided>
Course Syllabus
Course Syllabus: For new courses and courses in which changes in content and/or description and/or credits are proposed, please provide a syllabus that includes the following information: course goals and description; format;structure of the course (proposed number of instructor contact hours per week, student workload effort per week, etc.); topics to be covered; scope and nature of assigned readings (text, authors, frequency, amount per week); required course assignments; nature of any student projects; and how students will be evaluated. The University "Syllabi Policy" can be found here

The University policy on credits is found under Section 4A of "Standards for Semester Conversion" found here. Course syllabus information will be retained in this system until new syllabus information is entered with the next major course modification. This course syllabus information may not correspond to the course as offered in a particular semester.

(Please limit text to about 12 pages. Text copied and pasted from other sources will not retain formatting and special characters might not copy properly.)


Syllabus for GEO 1012
Natural Hazards and Disasters
Department of Geology and Geophysics
3 credits
Instructors:
Joshua M. Feinberg
feinberg@umn.edu
123 Pillsbury Hall
Bruce M. Moskowitz
bmosk@umn.edu
277 Shepherd Labs
James H. Stout
jstout@umn.edu
24 Pillsbury Hall
Meeting Time: MWF at a time to be specified later.
Meeting Place: In a general use classroom to be assigned at a later date.
Course Web Site: To be made shortly and maintained by Feinberg
Course Objectives: The primary goals of this course are three-fold: (1) To educate students
about the underlying natural process that give rise to natural hazards such as earthquakes,
volcanic eruptions, tsunamis, floods, and more. (2) To emphasize how society evaluates and
confronts the dangers posed by these natural processes from a political, social, and ethical
perspective. (3) Expose students to the technological innovations that are allowing an
increasing large human population to monitor, predict, and warn society about natural hazards
and impending disasters. The aim here is not simply to better understand geologic hazards or be
able to assess how hazards are minimized; it is also to give students a foundation for critically
evaluating future approaches to managing hazards, from a technical, personal, and societal point
of view. Case studies of recent and past natural disasters will be discussed, focusing on both the
geological context of the hazard and its impact on society, individuals and the environment.
Geo 1012 is designed for students without an extensive background in science or math and can
be used to partly satisfy minor programs in either Geology or Environmental Geosciences.
Satisfies the TECHNOLOGY & SOCIETY theme of the Liberal Education Requirements.
Prerequisites: None.
Reading Assignments: The primary textbook for this course will be ┐Natural Hazards &
Disasters┐ by Hyndman and Hyndman. (Cost ~$100). A limited number of copies of the
textbook are available at the reserve desk of the Walter Science Library. Additional readings
from a variety of individual sources will be provided electronically via the class website, or as
handouts during class.
Course Grading:
Exam I, II 25%
Final Exam 25%
Hazard & Disaster Log 10%
Homework Assignments 15%
For those taking the course on an S/N basis, an S grade will be considered equivalent to a Cgrade
or better.
Examinations: There will be two exams during the course and one cumulative final exam at the
end. Exams will consist of short answer, multiple choice and simple numerical problem solving
questions. For some short answer questions, grades will be determined, in part, by how well
students articulate their point of view, rather than whether they get some pre-ordained ┐right
answer┐. Students are expected to take the exams at the indicated times. Exceptions will be
made only for legitimate excuses or for conflicts that you anticipate and inform me about during
the first week of class.
Hazard & Disaster Journal: Throughout the term students are required to keep a journal of
five significant natural hazard events that happened over the semester and have made the media
headlines. This will necessitate you locating and evaluating technical information from online
agency sites such as the U.S. Geological Survey and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric
Administration. Links to the most relevant sites can be found on the course webpage.
Each entry must contain the following parts:
1. Date of the event
2. Sources for information concerning the event - the sources could be from the
newspaper, magazines or the web.
3. A paragraph summary of the event, including a description of the affects the event
had on humans and society.
4. A short discussion, displaying critical thinking, of the importance, implications or
consequences of the event and actions that could have been taken to mitigate
the damages.
Journals must be typed.
Journals are due on the last day of class.
Homework Assignments: There will be four extended problem sets. All assignments are
required and are due one week from when they are handed out ┐ unless otherwise specified. The
assignments will emphasize the quantitative aspects of what is being discussed in class. Many of
the assignments will require the use of a computer and the Microsoft program Excel (or
equivalent software). Late assignments are not acceptable.
Incompletes: An incomplete shall be assigned at the discretion of the instructors when, due to
extraordinary circumstances, a student was prevented from completing the work of the course
on time. The assignment of an ┐I┐ grade requires a written agreement between the instructor and
the student specifying the time and manner in which the student will complete the course
requirements during the student's next period of enrollment.
Regarding Academic Honesty: The Institute of Technology expects the highest standards of
honesty and integrity in the academic performance of its students. Any act of scholastic
dishonesty is regarded as a serious offense, which may result in expulsion. The Institute of
Technology defines scholastic dishonesty as submission of false records of academic
achievement; cheating on assignments or examinations; plagiarizing; altering, forging or
misusing and academic record; taking, acquiring, or using test materials without faculty
permission; acting along or in cooperation with another to obtain dishonestly grades, honors,
awards, or professional endorsement. Aiding and abetting an act of scholastic dishonesty is also
considered a serious offense. (From the IT Student Guide). Academic dishonesty in any portion
of the academic work for a course shall be grounds for awarding a grade of F or N for the entire
course.
Course resources: The class web page will be a major source of information.
Students with Disabilities: It is University policy to provide on a flexible and individualized
basis, reasonable accommodations to students who have disabilities that may affect their ability
to participate in course activities or to meet course requirements. Students with special needs are
encouraged to contact us during the first week of class to discuss your individual needs for
accommodations.
GEO 1012 Natural Hazards and Disasters Spring 2011
Week Technological !eme Societal Issues
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15 Case Study IV: Red River Flood Prevention
Case Study III: !e 1931 and 1938 Yellow River
Floods, China
Volcanic Hazards Volcanoes: Tectonic
Environments and Eruptions
Mitigating Volcanic Hazards
Case Study II: Pinatubo: Predicting volcanic
eruptions and the decision to evacuate a
community.
Tsunamis: Causes & Prediction
EXAM 2 & Landslides and Other Downslope
Movements
Streams and Flood Processes
Impacts from Asteroids and Comets
GPS Detection of Plate Motions
Quanti"cation of Earthquakes: Seismometer
Design and Multi-frequency Applications
Early Warning Systems: Leveraging the internet
and cellular phone networks
Strong motion seismometers & building codes
Volcano Monitoring: Seismicity, Gases, and
Crustal Deformation
Lahar warning systems - Acoustic #ow monitors
at Mt. Rainier, WA
Monitoring the spread of volcanic ash using the
MODIS satellite constellation
Tsunami Warning System (DART)
Creep Meters, Debris basins, and Avalanche
Control Measures
Volcanoes: When and how should communities
be evacuated?
When should scientists issue tsunami warnings to
the public?
Lecture Topic
Introduction to Natural Hazards & Plate
Tectonics; Producing a Prepared and
Knowledgeable Populace.
Earthquakes & !eir Causes
Earthquake Prediction and Mitigation
Case Study I: A comparison of the 2010
Earthquakes in Haiti and Chile - Why did a
magnitude 7.0 cause more loss of life than an 8.8?
EXAM 1 & Volcanoes: Tectonic Environments
and Eruptions
Floods and Human Interactions
!e overlap of human populations and natural
hazards
Reporting earthquakes to society in a meangful
way.
Centralized hazard mitigation: Sometimes
hazards are too big for a single community to
manage.
How and why do societies develop hazard
mitigation technologies?
How do contrasting eruptive styles effect societies
differently?
How does a society educate itself about a new
mitigation technology?
An in depth discussion of the various segments of our society competing for limited resources to
mitigate against future #ooding.
!e deveopment of levee systems outside the United States and their occassional manipulation for nonhazard
related reasons.
An in depth discussion of how scientists and public policy makers successfully navigated a major
volcanic eruption
Localized hazard mitigation: Sometimes hazards
are best managed by local communities.
Dams: Water availibility, #ood control,
downstream environmental change.
Successes and Unanticipated Societal
Consequences of Levee Systems
What is the argument for monitoring for
extraterrestrial impacts?
Dams: !eir construction and environmental
consequences
Levee Systems & Flood Control
International Efforts to Monitor Potential
Impactors using Infrasound