"Bamboo" Waves as a result of Up Flow in Water Lubricated Pipelining at Varying Oil Flow Rates


In all of the photographs, the flow rate of water is fixed at 0.05284 gallons per minute, and the oil flow rate is varied.

(Click on images for Expanded Views)


Qw=0.05284 GPM
Qo=0.04328 GPM


Qw=0.05284 GPM
Qo=0.05404 GPM


Qw=0.05284 GPM
Qo=0.08212 GPM


Qw=0.05284 GPM
Qo=0.11332 GPM


Qw=0.05284 GPM
Qo=0.21784 GPM


Qw=0.05284 GPM
Qo=0.32132 GPM


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