faraday-dec27.tex 1


Irrotational Faraday Waves on a Viscous Fluid


T.Funada*, J.Wang, D.D.Joseph & N.Tashiro*

* Department of Digital Engineering, Numazu National College of Technology, 3600 Ooka, Numazu, Shizuoka, 410-8501, Japan

Department of Aerospace Engineering and Mechanics, University of Minnesota, 110 Union St. SE, Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA



An analysis of irrotational Faraday waves on an inviscid fluid was given by Benjamin and Ursell 1954. Here we extend the analysis of the same problem to purely irrotational waves on a viscous fluid. Following our earlier work on free surface problems, two irrotational theories are presented. In the first theory (VPF) the effects of viscosity enter only through the viscous normal stress term evaluated on the potential. In the second irrotational theory (VCVPF), a viscous contribution is added to the Bernoulli pressure; otherwise the second theory is the same as the first. The second theory VCVPF gives rise to the same damped Mathieu equation as the dissipation method. Pressure fields are not required and not used in the dissipation method. The dissipation method is a purely irrotational theory, though it depends on viscosity, in which only irrotational velocity fields are needed. The two purely irrotational theories VPF and VCVPF are not restricted to small viscosities; they are restricted to small vorticity and do not apply near no-slip wall where Vorticity is generated.


Our VCVPF and dissipation theories give the same damped Mathieu equation as the phenomenological approximation of Kumar and Tuckerman 1994. The damping term in VCVPF is twice the damping rate of VPF. The growth rates of unstable disturbances computed by VPF are uniformly larger than those computed by VCVPF (or equivalently by Kumar and Tuckerman). Comparisons with the exact solution and the Rayleigh-Taylor instability show that thresholds and growth rates for viscously damped waves are better described by VPF than VCVPF.


Author to whom correspondence should be addressed. Telephone: (612) 625-0309; fax (612) 626-1558; electronic mail: joseph@aem.umn.edu